Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Red Lorry and Rainbow Lorikeet

There are four subspecies of the Red Lory: Eos bornea bornea - the nominate subspecies, Red Lory Eos bornea rothschildi, Rothschild's Red Lory Eos bornea bernsteini, Bernstein's Red Lory Eos bornea cyanonothus, Buru Red LoryThe Red Lory is sometimes referred to as the Mollucan Lory.
Lories are popular companion birds and are quite easily bred. They are entertaining birds, with many unique behaviors. Some have been known to wrap up in a wash cloth for sleeping. At times, they will sleep on their back, with feet straight in the air. Very intelligent and trainable, they can be taught tricks and can be trained to eliminate in a certain area, on cue. Playful by nature, lories appreciate many toys, including ropes, bells, balls, and swings with variety being the key. They can, however, become quite possessive of their toys, and are capable of delivering a painful bite if their territory and possessions are not respected.
In the wild, lories feed on nectar, pollen, fruits, and the occasional insect. All lories have a tongue that is specially adapted with a brush-like tip composed of elongated papillae. This feature enables the birds to collect pollen from flowers and compress it into a form suitable for swallowing. They play a major role in the pollinating of trees and flowering plants in their native Indonesia coastal and mountain forests.

Rainbow lorikeets distribution is mainly over the north-east in AustraliaTheir habitat ranges from forests of all sorts (heathlands, open forests, rainforest, sclerophyll forest) coastal or inland, to any area including urban areas that have suitable trees, These birds are normally found in flocks, large flocks at night roosting in trees (thousands) but during the daytime they move and feed in much smaller flocks ranging up to 20 odd birds Late evening you may see larger flocks as they head towards their roosting site They are arboreal, which means they like trees, and can be very noisy, active, gregarious (sociable) and are often seen in the company of other birds They will spend long times feeding in trees but in hot conditions will have an afternoon break from feeding

These birds spend a lot of time feeding and most of their food comes from trees. Flowers, pollen, nectar, blossoms mainly from (Myrtaceae, Proteacea, Eucalyptus, Xanthoroaceae ,Banksia, Melaleuca, Callistemon), berries and fruits, so they can be a pest to suburban and commercial fruit tree growers Rainbow Lorikeets have tiny hair like appendices on the end of their tongue, to help extract nectar etc. For harder fruits or seeds, they grate the fruit inside their beak or roll the fruit with their tongue against the inside of their beak Whilst feeding because of the good grip they can get with their claws they can be observed hanging upside down etc to feed. They occasionally feed on insects and larvae They obtain moisture from water trapped in leaves, but can also drink water directly.

Rainbow lorikeets after 2 years reach sexual maturity and breeding occurs normally in the spring time with these birds paring up for life The nest is located in a tree hollow, knot hole or cavity high up and is lined with wood dust. 2 white oval eggs are normally laid and takes 25 to 26 days to hatch whilst the female incubates Both parents help to feed the young which fledge in 50 to 55 days Birds reach sexual maturity after two years

Umbrella Cockatoo

The Umbrella Cockatoo or White Cockatoo, Cacatua alba, is endemic to the islands of Central and Northern Moluccas (aka Maluku Islands) - Bacan, Halmahera,, Tidore and Kasiruta - in Indonesia.
Although the umbrella cockatoos is not classified as an endangered species it is classified as vulnerable. It numbers in the wild have declined owing to habitat loss and illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. It is listed in appendex 2 of the CITES list of protected species. This gives it protection by making the trade of wild caught birds illegal.

Rainbow Lorikeet


The Rainbow Lorikeet is very colourful - almost every colour of the rainbow can be found on their feathers. They are not large birds, with a Rainbow Lorikeet's length ranging from 25–30 cm (9.8-11.8 in) in size, and have a wingspan of about 17 cm (6.7 in). The markings of the best known subspecies T. h. moluccanus are particularly striking. The features distinguishing a Rainbow Lorikeet include a dark blue or violet-blue head and stomach, a bright green back, tail and vent, and an orange breast and beak. Several subspecies have darker scalloped markings across the orange or red breast.
Rainbow Lorikeets often travel together in pairs and occasionally respond to calls to fly as a flock, then disperse again into pairs. Rainbow Lorikeet pairs defend their feeding and nesting areas aggressively against other Rainbow Lorikeets and other bird species. They chase off not only smaller birds such as the Noisy Miner, but also larger and more powerful birds such as the Australian Magpie.

Palm Cockatoo

Palm Cockatoo

Palmer
Scientific name: Probosciger atterimusFamily: CacauatuidaeOrder: PssitaciformesClass: Aves
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
The weight of the female Palm Cockatoo is between 500-950 grams, and the males weigh between 540-1100 grams. Both females and males height range from 49-68 centimeters. The wings are about 35.1 centimeters, the tail about 23.8 centimeters, the bill about 9.1 centimeters, and the tarsus about 3.5 centimeters. These Palm Cockatoos are very large birds. They are the second largest flying parrot after the hyacinth macaw.
The scientific name is derived from both Greek and Latin. Proboscis is Greek for nose, gero is Greek for carry, and atterimus is Latin for black. Most Palm Cockatoos are dark gray and black with a cheek-patch of bare red skin . The cheek skin color may change according to their level of stress, it may change pink or beige if it is stressed, or if it is excited it will turn yellow. Palm Cockatoos have a very strong mandible, which they use for cracking nuts.
DISTRIBUTION and HABITAT:
The Palm Cockatoo originated in New Guinea, Australia. It is also known to occur in the Aru Islands, Misool Isle in the Western Papuan Islands, West Irian, Southern New Guinea from Merauke east to the Gulf of Papua, and in Australia on the Cape York Peninsula in the Northern Territory. The Palm Cockatoo usually resides in rainforests. The Palm Cockatoo has three subspecies. The first one is the P.a. atterimus, which is from Misool, Aru, and Northern Australia. The second one is called P.a. goliath, which is from the Papuan Islands, and West Irian extending out to Southeastern Papuan. This is the largest subspecies of the Palm Cockatoos. The third subspecies is P.a. stenolopus, which is from New Guinea and West Irian.
BEHAVIOR:
Most captive birds behave differently from wild birds. Captive birds tend to display compulsive movements, and motions which they will continuously mimic. Territories are formed at tree top where nests occur. Palm Cockatoos, like many parrots, have the ability to learn and mimic the human voice. Cockatoos enjoy spending their days in the trees, digging up things, and foraging for fruits or whatever else they might find to eat. Palm Cockatoos are usually in pairs, but maybe found singlely or in groups of five to six. Sometimes the Palm Cockatoos gather and engage in social interactions such as preening, forming displays, and just calling out to one another.
DIET:
Palm Cockatoos sometimes feed on seeds and fallen fruits that they may find, but they would rather eat plants than fruits. They also eat insects, and insect larvae. Berries are common fruit that the Palm Cockatoos consume.
BREEDING and NESTING:
When male Palm Cockatoos are ready for courtship, they will display their beautiful feathers by stretching them to their full height, and approach the female, while calling to them at the same time. The age of maturation in the Palm Cockatoo is about four years old. The Palm Cockatoos lay only one egg per year. It takes anywhere from 30-35 days for their eggs to hatch, and the chick needs between 70-100 days before they are able to become almost the same height and weight of their parents. The chick will not emerge from its nest until approximately 100-110 days. About two weeks after leaving its nest, the chick still is not able to fly and is forced to depend on its parents for another six weeks.
Wild Population:
The Palm Cockatoo has been listed on CITES Appendix I since 1987 and may not be exported without permits.
Suggested Reading:
Rogers, Cyril. Parrot Guide. Neptune City, New Jersey. T.F.H. Publications Inc., 1981.
Vriends, Matthew. Popular Parrots. New York, NY. Howell Book House, 1983.
Caris, Thomas. The Palm Cockatoo. 1999&2000 www.homepages.hetnet.nl/~thcaris/palm.htm
Taylor, Mike. Palm Cockatoo SSP Husbandry Manual. 2000. www.funnyfarmexotics.com/PALM/paintro.htm

Friday, September 4, 2009

Research di Pekan, Pahang



































































Pada 17hb Ogos 2009, saya dan ahli rombongan pelajar telah membuat kajian di Pekan Pahang. Kami semua dibahagi-bahagikan kepada Mukin-Mukim yang tertentu. Ketika kami berada disana salah satu daripada kumpulan saya telah pergi ke Mukin Bebar iaitu En Ramli dan En Megat di bawah naungan Cik Salbiah salah seorang Pensyarah Universiti Tun Abdul Razak. Ketika mereka berada di sana, mereka dapati terdapat banyak perkampungan-perkampungan Orang asli yang berasal dari kaum Temuan. Di situ juga mereka dapat melihat penjualan burung-burung serindit yang banyak. Berikut adalah gambar-gambar yang diambil oleh pelajar-pelajar saya tersebut :

Saturday, August 1, 2009

Keunikan Orang Asli memikat burung di Rompin




RAMAI pengunjung berminat meredah hutan di Rompin, Pahang untuk melihat kehidupan Orang Asli selain mempelajari cara mereka memikat burung. Di kawasan itu juga banyak burung yang ada nilai komersil seperti tiong emas, merbok, bayan, puling dan serindit.Ada juga yang datang ke kawasan penempatan Orang Asli untuk membeli burung dan hasil kraftangan penduduk tempatan.Selain itu, ada juga Orang Asli menjual kijang, pelanduk, anak beruk kepada pengunjung untuk dijadikan binatang peliharaan serta mendapatkan wang bagi menampung kehidupan harian mereka.Apa pun, tidak semua orang mahir menangkap burung, apa lagi spesies yang ada harga seperti tiong emas kerana burung hidupan bak jinak-jinak merpati.





Namun, masyarakat Orang Asli ada kemahiran tersendiri untuk mengepung dan menangkap burung tanpa perlu mencederakan haiwan itu. Ada juga pengunjung yang berminat memerhatikan mereka menangkap.Bagi sekumpulan penduduk Orang Asli di Kampung Simpai, Rompin, Pahang kehidupan di hutan memberikan pengalaman yang menyeronokkan di samping mengharapkan hutan sebagai sumber mendapatkan wang tambahan.Pekerjaan mengesan dan mencari burung di hutan, lazimnya bermula pada awal pagi ketika burung sedang rancak mencari makanan. Kumpulan pemuda termasuk kanak-kanak dari perkampungan itu terpaksa meredah hutan yang di sekeliling perkampungan mereka.Seorang daripada mereka, Mat Tin, 21, berkata ada sekurang-kurang empat hingga lapan pemuda dari kampung itu menumpukan pekerjaan mereka ke hutan bagi mendapatkan burung sebagai mata pencarian.Hasil pencarian itu mendatangkan pendapatan sampingan di antara RM20 dan RM100 sehari yang dijual tidak jauh dari lebuh raya Kuantan-Segamat. Kebanyakan pembeli dari Pahang, Johor dan Singapura.“Burung yang ditangkap akan dijual dengan harga RM5 hingga RM150 seekor, tetapi harga itu mengikut jenis burung yang ditangkap” kata Mat.Katanya, harga burung Tiong Emas juga berbeza-beza bergantung kepada saiz dan kecantikan badan termasuk warna burung itu. Harga bagi burung tiong emas boleh mencapai sehingga RM150 seekor kerana kesukaran menangkapnya malah burung jenis ini tidak akan diturunkan harga kerana tawaran harganya yang agak tinggi dan ramai pembelinya.Setiap Orang Asli termasuklah wanita, mempunyai kemahiran dan kepakaran tersendiri untuk memerangkap serta menangkap burung. Kaedah menangkap burung tidak akan mencederakan apa lagi membunuh haiwan itu.“Kecacatan yang dialami oleh burung mengakibatkan harganya rendah atau ditolak oleh pembeli burung” katanya. Justeru, mereka sentiasa berhati-hati ketika menangkapnya.Kebanyakan Orang Asli menggunakan kaedah yang lebih moden bagi memerangkap burung iaitu menggunakan getah yang diletakkan pada perangkap yang diletakkan di atas pokok atau pokok kelapa sawit yang menjadi tumpuan utama burung itu.Permintaan terhadap burung dalam bilangan yang banyak datangnya daripada penjual burung. Mereka datang dua atau tiga bulan sekali bagi mendapatkan pelbagai jenis burung yang ditempah untuk dicarikan burung itu, katanya.

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Psittacula longicauda Profiles - Scientific Latin Name


Profiles:
The Long-tailed Parakeet averages 16.5 inches (40 to 42 cm) in length. The wing length is about 142 - 155 mm and the tail is about 154 - 270 mm long.
Adult Male: The general plumage is green. The throat, breast and abdomen are greenish-yellow; and the lores (the regions between the eyes and bill on the side of a bird's head) are bluish-black. The crown is a darker green, and the sides to head and nape are rose-red. There is a black stripe to the cheeks. The upper back is yellowish washed bluish-grey. The lower back is pale blue. The under wing-coverts are yellowish. The upper and under tail-coverts as well as the thighs are pale green. The middle tail-feathers are blue with pale tips and the outer feathers are green. The upper beak is red and the lower beak is brownish-black. The irises are whitish-yellow, and the feet are grey.
Females have a green nape. The stripe to her cheeks is dark green, and the upper cheeks are dull orange-red. Her tail-feathers are much shorter, and the upper and lower mandible are brownish-black.
Young birds have a green head variably interspersed with orange-red. The tail feathers are shorter, and both the upper and lower beak are brown. Young males have a bluish tinge on the lower back and some young males may have a reddish tinge to the upper beak. Immature birds attain their adult plumage when they are about 30 months old.
Mutations:
Lutino and other colorations, believed to be mutations, have been observed both in the wild and in captivity.
Breeding / Nesting:
The breeding season commences in February and goes on until about July. During the courtship display, the male bows before hen, making regurgitating and circular movements with head and touching bill of hen.
These parrots mostly nest in hollow branches or holes in dead trees and occasionally will nest in living trees. The nest is lined with pieces of bark and chewed wood. In the natural habitat, the average clutch consists of 2 to 3 eggs each measuring 30.6 x 24.7 mm.
Aviculture:
This is a medium-noisy to noisy parakeet. It's initially very shy and is slow to grow confiding with their care taker. These parakeets don't bathe often, but will occasionally choose to perch in rain. They enjoy gnawing fresh twigs.
Captive breeding is rarely achieved. The main problems are the difficulty of matching compatible pairs up as these parakeets may not accept a mate that they themselves have not chosen and even if pairs are breeding, it is very difficult to keep the chicks alive. Sudden mortalities without discernible cause have been reported - possibly resulting from stress. Some may refuse to eat. Occasional aggression by hen towards the cock has been observed. Additionally, these delicate parrots are difficult to acclimatize. Newly imported birds are susceptible to cold and wet conditions. During the acclimatization period, they should not be exposed to temperatures of less than 24°C and at no time below 10°C.
The average clutch size consists of 2 - 4 eggs laid at daily intervals and incubated for about 23 days. The young fledge 7 weeks after hatching and are independent 2 weeks later.
Accommodation:
These parakeets need spacious aviaries and are rather active if they have space to move around. A planted outside flight of the following dimensions OR LARGER is recommended: 3 x 1 x 2 m with adjoining sheltered area (heated if necessary to maintain a comfortable temperature). It's important to place the aviary in a quiet and sheltered location.
Provide a roosting box (22 x 22 x 60 cm) at all times.
Diet / Feeding:
Natural diet consists of fruits (Pandanus, Carica papaya, Dryobalan-ops sp.), seeds, flowers (Acacia) and leaf buds.
Insects and their larvae may also be part of their daily diet; whether these parrots actively seek them out is unknown, but they may be incidentally ingested while foraging on fruits and flowers. These parakeets are also considered a crop pest as they cause considerable damage to oil palm plantations in their natural range.
Captive Diet: An organic, good-quality dry food mix should be provided, that may include safflower and sunflower seeds, buckwheat, various millets, canary grass seed, oats and hemp; millet spray (also sprouted). A large portion of their diet should consists of a variety of fruit (apple, pear, fig, grapefruit); greenfood and vegetables (carrot, capsicum, cucumber). Sprouted seeds should be fed daily.
During the breeding season, eggfood, biscuit and sprouted seeds should be provided to the parents to help them raise the young.
Sprouted or germinated seeds are usually more easily accepted by "seed addicts" than fresh fruits and vegetables.
Sprouted seeds are healthier as the sprouting changes and enhances the nutritional quality and value of seeds and grains. Sprouted seeds are lower in fat, as the process of sprouting utilizes the fat in the seed to start the growing process - thus reducing the fat stored in the seeds.
Sprouted seeds will help balance your bird’s diet by adding a nutritious supply of high in vegetable proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and chlorophyll.
Soaked and germinated "oil" seeds, like niger and rape seeds, are rich in protein and carbohydrates; while "starch" seeds, such as canary and millets, are rich in carbohydrates, but lower in protein.
It is in invaluable food at all times; however, it is especially important for breeding or molting birds. Sprouted seeds also serve as a great rearing and weaning food as the softened shell is easier to break by chicks and gets them used to the texture of seeds.
If you have access to the food items that are part of their natural diet (listed above), that may increase your chances of maintaining a healthy breeding flock.



2009 IUCN Red List Category (as evaluated by BirdLife International - the official Red List Authority for birds for IUCN): Near Threatened

Justification This forest associated species occurs in the Sundaic lowlands where deforestation has been widespread in the recent past. It is consequently considered Near Threatened, because it is assumed to have experienced moderately rapid declines. It is not considered more threatened because it can use human modified habitats.
Family/Sub-family Psittacidae
Species name author (Boddaert, 1783)
Taxonomic source(s) Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Population estimate
Population trend
Range estimate (breeding/resident)
Country endemic?
unknown
decreasing
-
No
Range & population Psittacula longicauda occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, India (where it was abundant though little recent information is available), Coco islands, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan (including the Natuna Islands), Sumatra (including the Riau Islands), Indonesia and Brunei (widespread).
Ecology: It occurs in coastal and lowland areas to at least 300 m preferring extreme lowland swamp (including peatswamp) forest in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, although it avoids primary forest in Borneo. In addition it has been recorded from many types of lowland evergreen forest including mangroves, oil-palm plantations and coconut groves. It prefers forest edge, including near cultivated areas and will visit parks and gardens. It is gregarious and flocks of thousands have been reported from the Nicobars and Borneo, although smaller numbers are more common. It makes poorly understood movements, being abundant in a locality for a period, then absent for years. It feeds on fruit and nests communally, using tree cavities and laying 2-3 eggs in December-February.
Threats Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).
Conservation measures underway CITES Appendix II.
Conservation measures proposed Monitor the species in trade. Monitor habitat trends and rates of deforestation in the Sundaic lowlands using satellite images and remote sensing. Research the species's ecology to improve understanding of movements it makes. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and multiple use areas.
References BirdLife International (2001).

Further web sources of information
Fully detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001), together with new information collated since the publication of the Red Data Book
Text account compilers Phil Benstead (BirdLife International), Jeremy Bird (BirdLife International)
IUCN Red List evaluators Jeremy Bird (BirdLife International), Stuart Butchart (BirdLife International)
Recommended citation BirdLife International (2009) Species factsheet: Psittacula longicauda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/7/2009
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums

Psittinus Cyanurus Profiles - Scientific Latin Name


Species Profiles:
The Blue-rumped Parrot, Psittinus cyanurus, is native to the southern tip of Myanmar, peninsular South-western Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Rhio Archipelago and Banka Island.
Its preferred habitat includes lowland forest areas (generally below 700m), open woodland, orchards and plantations, mangroves, dense scrub, and coconut groves; where it is commonly seen in flocks of up to 20 birds. Its natural diet consists largely of seeds, fruit and blossoms
It is the only member of the genus Psittinus.
There are three subspecies:
Blue-rumped Parrots - Nominate Species (P. c. cyanurus)
Distribution: Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra.
Greater Blue-rumped Parrots ( T. l. pontius)
Distribution: Siberut, Sipora, Pagi, Indonesia
Visual Identification: Larger than the nominate subspecies.
Siumat Blue-rumped Parrots ( T. l. aabbottii):
Distribution: Simelue and Siumat Islands, western coast Sumatra, Indonesia
Visual Identification: Male head mostly green except around eye and ears, black mantle smaller. Even larger than pontius
Description:
This small parrot - averaging 7 inches or 18 cm in length - is primarily green, with bright red shoulder patches, and yellowish margins on the wing coverts.
The male has a black mantle, red upper beak, and greyish-blue head and rump, with a brighter blue to the forehead and crown. The breast and abdomen are greyish-olive. The thighs and under tail-coverts greenish-yellow with bluish tips. The back is blue-black with each feather edged greenish-grey. The lower back and upper tail-coverts are deep blue. The sides of the body and the wing-coverts and bend of wing are red. The outermost lesser wing-coverts are brownish-red. The wings and greater wing-coverts are dark green. The secondaries and wing-coverts have a greenish-yellow edging. The upperside of the tail-feathers are greenish-yellow and the underside is yellow. The upper beak of the male is red and his lower beak is brown-blackish. The irises are pale yellow and the feet are grey.
This species is sexually dimorphic (which means that males and females can be visually sexed - once they have gained their adult plumage). Females look similar to the male except hens have a grey-brown head. Her ear-coverts are tinged olive-yellow. The back, lower back and upper tail-coverts are green. There is a bluish patch to the lower back. The breast and abdomen are yellowish-green. The outer under wing-coverts are green. Both the upper and lower beaks are brown-blackish, while the upper beak of the male is red.
Immatures look like females, but their head is green. Young males usually have a bluish tinge to forehead; under wing-coverts partially red. The irises are greyish-yellow

Loriculus Galgulus Profiles (Scientific Latin Name)


Species Profile


Genus:Loriculus

Species:galgulus
Size:12cm (4.7in)
Adult Weight:28gm (1oz)

Races including nominate:oneColourization Adult: Male-in general green plumage; dark blue patch on crown; orange/yellow wash on mantle; red rump and upper tail coverts; band across lower back yellow; red throat patch. Bill black. Eye dark brown. Female-minimal blue on crown and orange/yellow on mantle; red throat patch absent; yellow band on lower back absent.Colourization Juvenile: As in adult female but with grey forehead washed with blue; blue on crown and orange/yellow on mantle absent; green rump with feathers margined red. Bill yellow/brown.Call: Calls made in flight shrill and squeaky. Group calls rapidly repeated or ringing. While feeding notes are occasionally shrill and with two syllables.


2009 IUCN Red List Category (as evaluated by BirdLife International - the official Red List Authority for birds for IUCN): Least Concern
Justification This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000>10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Monday, July 27, 2009

Long-tailed Parakeet (Bayan)























The Long-tailed Parakeet, Psittacula longicauda, is also known as Malaccan Red-cheeked Parakeet, Malayan Red-cheeked Parakeet, Pink-cheeked Parakeet or Bayan Nuriis.
Sub-species
Distribution / Range:
This parrot is native to the regions of Andaman islands, Nicobar islands, Sumatra, Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia (including Singapore), Indonesian island of Nias as well as Bangka and Anambas Islands.
They can be found in forests, swamps and mangrove areas, partly cleared areas and oil palm plantations. They are also seen visiting suburban gardens with tall vegetation.
They usually occur in groups of up to 20 birds; however, large gatherings of 800 or more birds have been observed in favored feeding areas. Seasonal migrations are likely.
These are restless birds that are constantly on move. They climb quickly around in branches, moving quickly from tree to tree. Though they are usually well camouflaged in the green foliage, but their continuous screeching cannot be missed. They tend to feed soon after sunrise and resume foraging in the later afternoons.
Status:
Much of their natural habitat has been destroyed and this parrot is frequently trapped for the cage-bird trade, resulting in a marked decline - but this species is still common in localized areas. In general, however, these parakeets are near-threatened and the survival of the various subspecies is unknown.
They usually form groups of up to 20 birds, although at times up to 800 parakeets can congregate, particularly at coastal roost sites. These parrots appear to be nomadic. They are conspicuous because of their continuous harsh, strident screeches given from treetops and in flight.
Description:
The Long-tailed Parakeet averages 16.5 inches (40 to 42 cm) in length. The wing length is about 142 - 155 mm and the tail is about 154 - 270 mm long.
Adult Male: The general plumage is green. The throat, breast and abdomen are greenish-yellow; and the lores (the regions between the eyes and bill on the side of a bird's head) are bluish-black. The crown is a darker green, and the sides to head and nape are rose-red. There is a black stripe to the cheeks. The upper back is yellowish washed bluish-grey. The lower back is pale blue. The under wing-coverts are yellowish. The upper and under tail-coverts as well as the thighs are pale green. The middle tail-feathers are blue with pale tips and the outer feathers are green. The upper beak is red and the lower beak is brownish-black. The irises are whitish-yellow, and the feet are grey.
Females have a green nape. The stripe to her cheeks is dark green, and the upper cheeks are dull orange-red. Her tail-feathers are much shorter, and the upper and lower mandible are brownish-black.
Young birds have a green head variably interspersed with orange-red. The tail feathers are shorter, and both the upper and lower beak are brown. Young males have a bluish tinge on the lower back and some young males may have a reddish tinge to the upper beak. Immature birds attain their adult plumage when they are about 30 months old.
Mutations:
Lutino and other colorations, believed to be mutations, have been observed both in the wild and in captivity.
Breeding / Nesting:
The breeding season commences in February and goes on until about July. During the courtship display, the male bows before hen, making regurgitating and circular movements with head and touching bill of hen.
These parrots mostly nest in hollow branches or holes in dead trees and occasionally will nest in living trees. The nest is lined with pieces of bark and chewed wood. In the natural habitat, the average clutch consists of 2 to 3 eggs each measuring 30.6 x 24.7 mm.
Aviculture:
This is a medium-noisy to noisy parakeet. It's initially very shy and is slow to grow confiding with their care taker. These parakeets don't bathe often, but will occasionally choose to perch in rain. They enjoy gnawing fresh twigs.
Captive breeding is rarely achieved. The main problems are the difficulty of matching compatible pairs up as these parakeets may not accept a mate that they themselves have not chosen and even if pairs are breeding, it is very difficult to keep the chicks alive. Sudden mortalities without discernible cause have been reported - possibly resulting from stress. Some may refuse to eat. Occasional aggression by hen towards the cock has been observed. Additionally, these delicate parrots are difficult to acclimatize. Newly imported birds are susceptible to cold and wet conditions. During the acclimatization period, they should not be exposed to temperatures of less than 24°C and at no time below 10°C.
The average clutch size consists of 2 - 4 eggs laid at daily intervals and incubated for about 23 days. The young fledge 7 weeks after hatching and are independent 2 weeks later.
Accommodation:
These parakeets need spacious aviaries and are rather active if they have space to move around. A planted outside flight of the following dimensions OR LARGER is recommended: 3 x 1 x 2 m with adjoining sheltered area (heated if necessary to maintain a comfortable temperature). It's important to place the aviary in a quiet and sheltered location.
Provide a roosting box (22 x 22 x 60 cm) at all times.
Diet / Feeding:
Natural diet consists of fruits (Pandanus, Carica papaya, Dryobalan-ops sp.), seeds, flowers (Acacia) and leaf buds.
Insects and their larvae may also be part of their daily diet; whether these parrots actively seek them out is unknown, but they may be incidentally ingested while foraging on fruits and flowers. These parakeets are also considered a crop pest as they cause considerable damage to oil palm plantations in their natural range.
Captive Diet: An organic, good-quality dry food mix should be provided, that may include safflower and sunflower seeds, buckwheat, various millets, canary grass seed, oats and hemp; millet spray (also sprouted). A large portion of their diet should consists of a variety of fruit (apple, pear, fig, grapefruit); greenfood and vegetables (carrot, capsicum, cucumber). Sprouted seeds should be fed daily.
During the breeding season, eggfood, biscuit and sprouted seeds should be provided to the parents to help them raise the young.
Sprouted or germinated seeds are usually more easily accepted by "seed addicts" than fresh fruits and vegetables.
Sprouted seeds are healthier as the sprouting changes and enhances the nutritional quality and value of seeds and grains. Sprouted seeds are lower in fat, as the process of sprouting utilizes the fat in the seed to start the growing process - thus reducing the fat stored in the seeds.
Sprouted seeds will help balance your bird’s diet by adding a nutritious supply of high in vegetable proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and chlorophyll.
Soaked and germinated "oil" seeds, like niger and rape seeds, are rich in protein and carbohydrates; while "starch" seeds, such as canary and millets, are rich in carbohydrates, but lower in protein.
It is in invaluable food at all times; however, it is especially important for breeding or molting birds. Sprouted seeds also serve as a great rearing and weaning food as the softened shell is easier to break by chicks and gets them used to the texture of seeds.
If you have access to the food items that are part of their natural diet (listed above), that may increase your chances of maintaining a healthy breeding flock.
Call / Vocalization:
This parrot emits rapidly repeated shrill cries during flight.
Pet Quality / Training and Behavioral Guidance:
As these parakeets are so rare, experts prefer any captive birds to be placed into a well-managed breeding program. If for some reason, an individual is unsuitable for breeding and you are considering it for your aviary or as pet, you may want to consider the following.
Ringneck parrots are less demanding than other parrot species, which makes them an excellent choice for someone who wants to "step up" from an easy-going and easy-care cockatiel or budgie.
Consistent training and behavioral guidance from a young age is recommended to ensure potential owners enjoy a bird free of destructive and annoying habits.
Behavioral challenges that ringnecks present include:
Chewing: Any parrot will chew. In nature, they use their beak to "customize" their favorite tree, to enlarge the size of their nest in a tree hollow. Doing this keeps their beaks in good condition. The problem is excessive and undesirable chewing. Undisciplined ringnecks may chew on electric wiring potentially causing house fires. The owner needs to provide plenty of "healthy" chewing opportunities (bird toys, natural wood branches, etc.) and training is necessary to teach a parrot what is "off-limits."
Jealousy / Aggression: The ringneck parrots can be jealous of other family members and pets. They can develop a bond with only one human and refuse to interact with other people, even attacking them in some cases. Although this is a small bird it does not seem to believe so, and will attack larger birds and even dogs if it feels it or its human is threatened. Owners should be cautious in multiple-pet homes. Continuing to socialize the hand reared pet bird from a young age and letting many people handle and interact with it can prevent single-person bonding and allow it to become an excellent family pet.
Noise: They can be noisy - albeit not as noisy as their larger cousins. Not everybody can tolerate the natural call of a ringneck parrot, and even though it can't (or should not) be entirely eliminated, there are ways to discourage screaming / screeching in your pet. Ringnecks are known for their talking and whistling ability, and teaching and encouraging your pet to talk is one way to reduce undesirable screeching in your pet.
Taxonomy
Species: Scientific: Psittacula longicauda longicauda ... English: Long-tailed Parakeet ... Dutch: Langstaartparkiet ... German: Langschwanz Edelsittich ... French: Perruche Γ  longue queue CITES II - Endangered Species
Distribution: Malay Peninsula south of Kedah, Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra, Nias Islands, Bangka Islands, Anambas Islands

Blue-rumped Parrot (Tanau/Puling)




The Blue-rumped Parrot, Psittinus cyanurus, is a parrot found in the very southern tip of Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and nearby islands. It is a small parrot (18 cm) and is primarily green with bright red underwing coverts, a reddish shoulder patch, and yellowish margins on the wing coverts. It is sexually dimorphic. The female has a grey-brown head. The male has a black mantle, red upper mandible, and blue head and rump.

Blue Crown Hanging Parrot (Serindit)






























The hanging parrot family (Loriculus) consists of thirteen species including Blue-crowned, Ceylon, Flores, Green, Green-fronted, Maroon-rumped, Moluccan, Orange-fronted, Philippine, Sangihe, Sula, Vernalm and the Yellow-throated hanging parrot.
Hanging parrots come from South and Southeast India, Sri-Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, the Philippines, and some Indonesian Islands.
Blue-crowned hanging parrots are found in Southern Thailand, Western Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, and Borneo. They inhabit forests, forest edges, secondary growth, marshland, bamboo thickets, mangroves, coconut groves, gardens, and orchards.
Care
Quiet birds with a gentle nature and melodic fluting call, Blue-crowned hanging parrots were once widely kept in aviculture. Unfortunately, because of their diet and habits, they have almost died out in captivity.
Their cage needn't be large; a cage around six feet by three feet is recommended although keepers (including myself) use smaller with success. It should be easily dismantled to be cleaned and contain a variety or natural branches of various sizes. As their name suggests, they spend a lot of time hanging from the cage bars so wire sides and top are essential; if there is a risk of rodents getting into the room where they're kept, then it is a good idea to have double wiring to prevent their feet from being chewed by rodents as they sleep.
As they are prone to fungal ailments, strict hygiene is needed; perches and the area around food bowls need regular cleaning as they become quite soiled. As they're fruit eaters, their diet makes them similar to softbills in their cage care. Their faeces is almost liquid and can be squirted on walls and out of the cage, making it harder to keep hygiene levels high. Acrylic sides can be added to the cage to stop them squirting out of the cage.
The substrate used needs to be carefully thought about. It needs to be absorbent, safe, and hygienic. Paper is often used although I found that it got difficult to clean as the faeces soaked through, making the paper hard to remove. Wood shavings would be more absorbent but are light so easily blown around when they fly. I have recently started using wood based cat litter; it comes in a pellet form that expands when wet absorbing any liquid and showing clearly any areas that need cleaning. I change dirty patches daily, doing a full change of the litter weekly.
Diet
In the wild, Blue-crowned hanging parrots mainly eat fruits, nectar, buds, flowers, seeds, and occasionally small insects. This should be considered when keeping them in captivity and replicated as close as possible. They should be offered fruit and vegetables daily, as well as nectar. Millets, canary grass seed, niger, and groats should also be offered on occasion either as they are or sprouted. When feeding these, the birds should be closely observed as overfeeding can lead to obesity and their digestive systems aren't developed to eat too much dry matter.
Nectar comes in many forms. To offer fresh flowers daily to provide them with sufficient amounts is implausible because of the large amount needed and the cost involved. Instead feed companies have developed the next best thing, artificial nectar, which can come in liquid form that is diluted in water or powder form that is either offered dry or mixed in water to make the nectar.
Fruits and vegetables that can be offered include; carrots, grapes, apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, plums, papaya, cucumber, cantaloupe, sweet potato, cabbage, sprouted seeds, runner beans, mango, pomegranate, cooked brown rice, tomato, banana, orange, strawberries, kiwi, cherry, broccoli, custard apples (cherimoya), and figs. I've fed a wide range of these to my Blue-crowns and found that pomegranate, cherimoya, apple, banana, and grapes are a firm favorite with them both.
Breeding
Blue-crowned hanging parrots are relatively easy to breed and it's often successfully achieved. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables should be offered prior to breeding along with mealworms, insectivore mix, canary or finch seed, and egg food. They should be offered with a nest box for budgies or slightly bigger; boot boxes are often suggested as their "L" shape stops the possibility of the parents jumping into the nest onto the eggs or chicks. The bottom should be lined with a thin layer of wood shavings and the parents should be provided with willow twigs, ivy, and other leafy material and pieces of bark, with which they'll make their nest. Clutches are usually two to four eggs in size, which are laid at two-day intervals. The hen will sit on the eggs once the final one is laid, where she will be fed by the male. Incubation lasts around 21 days. The babies will be reared by the parents and fledge at 35 days.
Overview
Blue-crowned hanging parrots are intriguing birds to keep, fun to watch, and pleasant to listen to. Because of their rarity in captivity it's suggested that none should be kept as pet birds but should be kept as breeders to help establish them in aviculture once again. Unlike most other hand-reared birds, hanging parrots tend not to stay tame after weaning.

Tuesday, July 21, 2009

Makanan Yang Disukai Burung Bayan, Tanau dan Serindit














































Kepada peminat-peminat burung-burung Bayan, Tanau dan Serindit, disini saya akan syorkan makanan-makanan yang berhasiat bagi burung-burung ini. Buah-buahan yang digemari oleh burung-burung ini terdiri daripada pisang, rambutan,belimbing besi,Jambu air yang berwarna merah bagi burung Serindit. Manakala bagi burung Bayan dan Tanau, mereka lebih suka makanan bijian seperti buah Kelapa Sawit, Buah Getah, Petai , Jering, Kuaci dan juga buah-buahan yang di sukai burung serindit. Kepada pembela burung-burung jenis ini, saya juga berharap agar anda memberi burung-burung ini setidak-tidaknya, sekali buah kelapa sawit. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengilatkan bulu-bulu burung tersebut. Berikut adalah gambar buah-buahan dan buah kelapa sawit untuk makanan burung-burung ini:

Monday, June 22, 2009

Perbezaan Jantina bagi Burung Puling (Tanau)




Burung Tanau, atau lebih dikenali sebagai burung Puling, di negeri-negeri tertentu seperti Pahang. Untuk mengetahui Perbezaan jantina antara Jantan dan Betina bagi burung ini adalah senang, namun ianya hendaklah apabila ianya matang ketika berumur dua tahun keatas. Bagi Tanau Jantan ianya mempunyai bulu kepala yang berwarna biru dan paruh yang merah. Tanau Betina pula mempunyai bulu kepala cokelat dan paruh yang hitam. Selalunya burung Tanau ini suka terbang berpasangan terutamanya didahan pokok petai dan pokok kelapa sawit. Berikut adalah gambar Burung Tanau Jantan dan Betina:

Perbezaan Jantina bagi Burung Bayan




Pada lazimnya Burung Bayan jantan berparuh merah dan burung Bayan betina pula berparuh hitam. Selalunya burung Bayan ini terbang berpasangan dan tempat-tempat yang di sukai oleh burung-burung bayan ini adalah di Ladang Kelapa Sawit yang sedang berbuah. Untuk pengetahuan saudara buah kelapa sawit ataupun buah kelapa barli ini bertindak sebagai salah satu vitamin kepada burung-burung Bayan ini dimana ianya akan mengilatkan lagi warna pada bulu burung-burung Bayan tersebut. Berikut adalah Gambar Bayan Jantan dan Bayan Betina: